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A short history of England

/4000 BC/
The Farmers moved from Europe to England.
(They grew crops and raised animals. This was the Stone Age)

farmermsengln.jpg

/2500 BC/
Another group of people arrived in England: the Beaker people.
(they worked with metals such as bronze or gold, this was the Bronze Age)

stonehenge.jpg

/600 BC/
The Celts arrived in England.
(they lived in big families or clans, and had a rich culture. This was the Iron Age.)

celts5.jpg

/43 AD/
Britain is conquered by the Romans.
(the Romans called this "new province" Britannia.)

romano british

Not all the natives were easily conquered. For example, Queen Boudicca of the Iceni tribe (a Celtic tribe) led a revolt against the Romans.
Queen Boudicca

The Hadrian's Wall in Northern England was built by the Romans as a defence against the Scots.
Hadrians Wall in Northern England

/350 AD/
Britain is invaded by the Germanic tribes.
The Saxons came first, then the Jutes and finally the Angles.

germanic tribes in britain
(they had separate kingdoms but shared similar languages and traditions.)

/9TH CENTURY/
The Vikings invaded and captured all England.
vikingsinengland.jpg

/596 AD/
Saint Augustine came to Britain to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
St Augustine

/1066/
William of Normandy or William the conqueror, invaded England and was the first Norman ruler of England.
(He brought Norman language and culture, castles and the Domesday Book to the land.)

WilliamtheConqueror.jpg

/1215/
The sign of the Magna Carta, the Great Charter.
(The Magna Carta is the basis of the modern British constitution.)
magnacarta.jpg

/1348/

The Black Death: a terrible plague of Europe that reached England and changed society for ever.
The Black Deathpl

The War of the Roses: were between rival families for the English crown, the York family (whose symbol was a white rose) and the Lancaster family (a red rose as a symbol).
BattleofBarnet.jpg
The fighting lasted for 30 years and ended when Henry Tudor (the Lancaster heir) won the battle.
The symbol of England is still a red rose.

warsofroses1.jpg

Henry VIII: was a famous as a tyrant who had many wifes and was desesperate to have a male son.
henry tudor viii
When the pope refused to annul his marriage, He formed his own church, the Anglican Church.


Elizabet I: Henry VIII´s second daughter, Elizabeth, was one of the England´s most important rulers. She was Queen for 45 years and during her reign England became a great naval state. She defeated the Spanish Armada and set up trade routes to South America and India.
Elizabeth also loved the arts, and a young actor and writer called William Shakespeare was very popular in that time.

Elizabeth1.jpg

James I: was the first king og England and Scotland.
He was a Protestant and expelled all Catholic priests.
James111111.jpg
Then James I and his son Charles I took the power from the English Parliament, and many members of Parliament became Puritans (strict Protestant). Civil War broke out and the Parliament won with the help of a Puritan soldier, Oliver Cromwell.

From 1665 to the present

The Great Plague and the Great Fire (in the Charles II´s reign)
Greatplaguelondon1665.jpg
greatfirelondon.jpg

George I was German and couldn´t speak English. During the Georgian times, the Parliament became important and the Bank of England was created.
germangeorgeIofengland.jpg

During Georgian times, Britain expanded its colonies. The East India company (set up by Elizabeth I) was the biggest company in the world. Liverpool and Bristol became important centres of the slave trade to the West Indies.
eastindiacompanyelizabeth1.jpg

The Industrial Revolution.
industrialrevolutiopnegnad.jpg

Queen Victoria came to power when she was 18 and ruled for 64 years.
queenvictoria.jpg
During her reign the British Empire expandede from West Indies to North America, Africa and Asia.
The Industrial Revolution created a new system in Britain and the people moved to the big cities to work in factories.

The two World Wars (1914-18 and 1939-45) had profund effect on Britain.
ww1w.png
gWWIIdresden.jpg

Now: after WW2 Britain lost power over many of its colonies. India, many African nations and the West Indies became independent.
Many people emigrated to Britain and now 7.5 % of the population are of ethnic origin.
London bus



ENGLAND

A little about the United Kingdom
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